Introduction Suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) ranks among the most common reasons for antibiotic use in nursing homes. However, diagnosing UTI in this setting is challenging because UTI often presents with non-specific symptomatology. Moreover asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in elderly, which complicates attribution of causality to detection of bacteria in urine. These diagnostic challenges contribute to overuse of antibiotics and emergence of antimicrobial resistance in nursing homes. Given the diagnostic challenges, there is a need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests to support clinical rules for diagnosing UTI. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C reactive protein (CRP) are inflammatory blood markers that have been proven useful to support diagnosis and monitoring of (bacterial) respiratory tract infections and sepsis. While limited studies suggest their usefulness in supporting UTI diagnosis, their utility has not been studied in elderly populations for this purpose. Methods and analysis In a 24-month matched prospective study, PROGRESS' will assess and compare the sensitivity of rapid POC measurements of blood CRP and PCT levels to support clinical rules for diagnosing UTI in nursing home residents. The primary outcome measure is sensitivity of the POC tests to identify patients with true UTI based on the predefined definition, as derived from receiver operating curves. Ethics and dissemination This study will be conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol is approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Amsterdam UMC location VUmc with reference number 2017.350 and National Central Committee on Research involving Human Subjects with reference number NL62067.029.17. Trial registration number NTR6467.
Kuil, S. D., Hidad, S., Fischer, J. C., Harting, J., Hertogh, C. M. P. M., Prins, J. M., ... Schneeberger, C. (2019). Sensitivity of point-of-care testing C reactive protein and procalcitonin to diagnose urinary tract infections in Dutch nursing homes: PROGRESS study protocol. BMJ Open, 9(8), [e031269]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031269