Introduction: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising biomarker in neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated NfL levels in CSF and blood have been observed in a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We studied serum NfL levels in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in relation to disease severity and survival. Methods: Serum NfL levels were determined cross-sectionally in a retrospective cohort of 131 patients with PSP and 95 healthy controls. Detailed clinical examination was performed and disease severity was assessed by several rating scales. Results: We found that serum NfL levels in PSP were twice as high as those in controls, and that NfL levels correlated with worse functional, motor and cognitive functioning. During follow-up, 119 PSP patients had died, and higher NfL levels were associated with a shorter survival. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that serum NfL is a relevant and promising biomarker in PSP for disease severity, and may be used as a prognostic tool to predict survival in clinical practice.