D-glycerate 2 kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that mediates the conversion of D-glycerate, an intermediate metabolite of serine and fructose metabolism, to 2-phosphoglycerate. Deficiency of DGK leads to accumulation of D-glycerate in various tissues and its massive excretion in urine. D-glyceric aciduria (DGA) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GLYCTK gene. The clinical spectrum of DGA is highly variable, ranging from severe progressive infantile encephalopathy to a practically asymptomatic condition. We describe a male patient from a consanguineous Arab family with infantile onset of DGA, characterized by profound psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly, intractable seizures, cortical blindness and deafness. Consecutive brain MR imaging showed an evolving brain atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum and diffuse abnormal white matter signals. Whole exome sequencing identified the homozygous missense variant in the GLYCTK gene [c.455 T > C, NM_145262.3], which affected a highly conserved leucine residue located at a domain of yet unknown function of the enzyme [p.Leu152Pro, NP_660305]. In silico analysis of the variant supported its pathogenicity. A review of the 15 previously reported patients, together with the current one, confirms a clear association between DGA and severe neurological impairment. Yet, future studies of additional patients with DGA are required to better understand the clinical phenotype and pathogenesis.
Zehavi, Y., Mandel, H., Eran, A., Ravid, S., Abu Rashid, M., Jansen, E. E. W., ... Spiegel, R. (2019). Severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy associated with D-glyceric aciduria: report of a novel case and review. METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE, 34(2), 557-563. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-019-0384-x