Sexual dimorphism may play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and explain differences observed in disease phenotypes, responses to interventions, and disease progression between men and women with diabetes. Therefore, omitting the consideration of sex as a biological factor may result in delayed diagnoses and suboptimal therapies. This review will summarize the effects of sexual dimorphism on putative metabolic and molecular mechanisms underlying DKD, and the potential implications of these differences on therapeutic interventions. To successfully implement precision medicine, we require a better understanding of sexual dimorphism in the pathophysiologic progression of DKD. Such insights can unveil sex-specific therapeutic targets that have the potential to maximize efficacy while minimizing adverse events.