BACKGROUND: Recurrent bleeding is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Antifibrinolytic therapy is known to reduce recurrent bleeding, however, its beneficial effect on outcome remains unclear. The effect of treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) until aneurysm treatment on clinical outcome is evaluated.
METHODS: Patients with an aSAH from two high-volume tertiary referral treatment centers in the Netherlands, Academic Medical Center (AMC) and Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC), between January 2012 and December 2015 were included. Patients were classified into one of two groups; standard treatment or TXA treatment. Demographic and clinical characteristics, in-hospital complications and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for the influence of treatment center and baseline differences.
RESULTS: Standard treatment was given in 509 patients, and 119 patients received additional TXA therapy before aneurysm occlusion. Patients treated with TXA did not experience less recurrent bleeding adjusted or unadjusted for treatment center (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.37-1.73). In-hospital mortality, was significantly lower in the TXA group than the standard care group (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.85). Poor outcome (mRS 4-6) assessed after six months was not different between treatment groups (aOR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.64-1.74).
CONCLUSIONS: Pooled data from two high-volume treatment centers did not show improved clinical outcome after additional TXA treatment in aSAH patients. However, TXA treatment was associated with a decrease in mortality.