This study aimed to compare sickness absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare use due to respiratory infections, as well as general sickness absenteeism and work performance between shift and non-shift workers. In this study, 589 shift and non-shift workers employed in hospitals were included. For 6 months, participants kept a daily record of their influenza-like illness/acute respiratory infection (ILI/ARI) symptoms using a diary application. After an episode of ILI/ARI symptoms ended, participants (n = 531) were questioned about their sickness absenteeism (occurrence and duration in hours), work performance (on a 10 point scale), and healthcare use during the ILI/ARI episode. At the end of the 6 months follow-up, participants (n = 498) were also asked about general sickness absenteeism and work performance in the past 4 weeks. Mixed-model and regression analyses were used to compare absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare use between shift and non-shift workers. No differences were found in sickness absenteeism [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.00 (95%‒Confidence Interval (CI): 0.61‒1.64)] and work performance [Regression coefficient (B) = −0.19 (95%‒CI: −0.65‒0.26)] due to ILI/ARI between shift and non-shift workers. In addition, healthcare use due to ILI/ARI was similar between shift and non-shift workers. Furthermore, similar general sickness absenteeism rates and work performance levels were found between shift and non-shift workers. As this is the first study that examined the associations with shift work due to ILI/ARI, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.