State of the Art in Radiolabeling of Antibodies with Common and Uncommon Radiometals for Preclinical and Clinical Immuno-PET

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Inert and stable radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), antibody fragments, or antibody mimetics with radiometals is a prerequisite for immuno-PET. While radiolabeling is preferably fast, mild, efficient, and reproducible, especially when applied for human use in a current Good Manufacturing Practice compliant way, it is crucial that the obtained radioimmunoconjugate is stable and shows preserved immunoreactivity and in vivo behavior. Radiometals and chelators have extensively been evaluated to come to the most ideal radiometal-chelator pair for each type of antibody derivative. Although PET imaging of antibodies is a relatively recent tool, applications with 89Zr, 64Cu, and 68Ga have greatly increased in recent years, especially in the clinical setting, while other less common radionuclides such as 52Mn, 86Y, 66Ga, and 44Sc, but also 18F as in [18F]AlF are emerging promising candidates for the radiolabeling of antibodies. This review presents a state of the art overview of the practical aspects of radiolabeling of antibodies, ranging from fast kinetic affibodies and nanobodies to slow kinetic intact mAbs. Herein, we focus on the most common approach which consists of first modification of the antibody with a chelator, and after eventual storage of the premodified molecule, radiolabeling as a second step. Other approaches are possible but have been excluded from this review. The review includes recent and representative examples from the literature highlighting which radiometal-chelator-antibody combinations are the most successful for in vivo application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1330
Number of pages16
JournalBioconjugate chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2021

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