PURPOSE: To study the impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) during renal artery stent placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 22) with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis were studied with IVUS after predilation and after angiographically successful stent deployment (diameter stenosis < 10%). After predilation, IVUS was used to assess whether the balloon size selected angiographically was correct (discrepancy balloon- reference lumen diameter < 20%). After stent placement, IVUS images were assessed for (i) complete stent-vessel wall apposition; (ii) complete stent expansion (discrepancy stent-reference lumen diameter < 20%), and (iii) complete lesion covering by the stent. Modification based on IVUS included selection of a larger balloon, additional dilation, and placement of a second stent. Clinical outcome was based on blood pressure, amount of antihypertensive drugs, and glomerular filtration rate during follow-up of 3 months. RESULTS: Stent placement and ultrasound imaging were completed successfully in 18 patients. After predilation, IVUS warranted the use of a larger balloon in five patients. After stent placement, incomplete stent apposition (n = 1), discrepancy between stent and reference lumen diameter (n = 3), and lesion distal to the stent (n = 2) seen on IVUS were treated with additional dilation in five patients and with a second stent in one patient. A larger balloon was used in three patients. Mean blood pressure and amount of antihypertensive drugs decreased (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In a number of patients, IVUS monitoring during renal artery stent placement resulted in additional lumen enlargement not considered necessary at angiography.