Abstract

OBJECTIVE - To compare steroids and their associations in men with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 52 adult men with type 1 diabetes without microvascular complications, compared with 53 control subjects matched for age and BMI. Steroids and their binding globulins were assessed in a single venous blood sample and a 24-h urine sample. RESULTS - In adult men with type 1 diabetes, total testosterone did not differ from healthy control subjects, but sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (42 [14-83] vs. 26 [9-117] nmol/l, P < 0.001), cortisol-binding globulin (CBG; 0.87 ± 0.17 vs. 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/l, P < 0.001), and cortisol levels (0.46 ± 0.16 vs. 0.39 ± 0.14 nmol/l, P < 0.01) were higher. The free testosterone index was lower (60 [17-139] vs. 82 [24-200], P < 0.001), and the calculated free testosterone was slightly lower (497 [115] vs. 542 [130], P < 0.064), but the pituitary-gonadal axis was not obviously affected in type 1 diabetes. The calculated free serum cortisol was not different, and 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion was lower in type 1 diabetes (121 [42-365] vs. 161 [55-284] nmol/24 h, P < 0.009). Testosterone was mainly associated with SHBG. Estimated portal insulin was a contributer to SHBG in control subjects but not in type 1 diabetes. Cortisol was associated with CBG. HbA1c contributed to CBG in men with diabetes but not in control subjects, whereas estimated portal insulin did not contribute. CONCLUSIONS - Adult men with fairly controlled type 1 diabetes without complications who are treated with subcutaneous insulin have a tendency to hypogonadism, as reflected by lower free testosterone levels in the presence of similar total testosterone levels and higher SHBG levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1812-1818
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003

Cite this

Van Dam, Eveline W.C.M. ; Dekker, Jacqueline M. ; Lentjes, Eef G.W.M. ; Romijn, Fred P.T.H.M. ; Smulders, Yvo M. ; Post, Wendy J. ; Romijn, Johannes A. ; Krans, H. Michiel J. / Steroids in adult men with type 1 diabetes : A tendency to hypogonadism. In: Diabetes Care. 2003 ; Vol. 26, No. 6. pp. 1812-1818.
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title = "Steroids in adult men with type 1 diabetes: A tendency to hypogonadism",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE - To compare steroids and their associations in men with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 52 adult men with type 1 diabetes without microvascular complications, compared with 53 control subjects matched for age and BMI. Steroids and their binding globulins were assessed in a single venous blood sample and a 24-h urine sample. RESULTS - In adult men with type 1 diabetes, total testosterone did not differ from healthy control subjects, but sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (42 [14-83] vs. 26 [9-117] nmol/l, P < 0.001), cortisol-binding globulin (CBG; 0.87 ± 0.17 vs. 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/l, P < 0.001), and cortisol levels (0.46 ± 0.16 vs. 0.39 ± 0.14 nmol/l, P < 0.01) were higher. The free testosterone index was lower (60 [17-139] vs. 82 [24-200], P < 0.001), and the calculated free testosterone was slightly lower (497 [115] vs. 542 [130], P < 0.064), but the pituitary-gonadal axis was not obviously affected in type 1 diabetes. The calculated free serum cortisol was not different, and 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion was lower in type 1 diabetes (121 [42-365] vs. 161 [55-284] nmol/24 h, P < 0.009). Testosterone was mainly associated with SHBG. Estimated portal insulin was a contributer to SHBG in control subjects but not in type 1 diabetes. Cortisol was associated with CBG. HbA1c contributed to CBG in men with diabetes but not in control subjects, whereas estimated portal insulin did not contribute. CONCLUSIONS - Adult men with fairly controlled type 1 diabetes without complications who are treated with subcutaneous insulin have a tendency to hypogonadism, as reflected by lower free testosterone levels in the presence of similar total testosterone levels and higher SHBG levels.",
author = "{Van Dam}, {Eveline W.C.M.} and Dekker, {Jacqueline M.} and Lentjes, {Eef G.W.M.} and Romijn, {Fred P.T.H.M.} and Smulders, {Yvo M.} and Post, {Wendy J.} and Romijn, {Johannes A.} and Krans, {H. Michiel J.}",
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pages = "1812--1818",
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Steroids in adult men with type 1 diabetes : A tendency to hypogonadism. / Van Dam, Eveline W.C.M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Lentjes, Eef G.W.M.; Romijn, Fred P.T.H.M.; Smulders, Yvo M.; Post, Wendy J.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Krans, H. Michiel J.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 26, No. 6, 01.06.2003, p. 1812-1818.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Steroids in adult men with type 1 diabetes

T2 - A tendency to hypogonadism

AU - Van Dam, Eveline W.C.M.

AU - Dekker, Jacqueline M.

AU - Lentjes, Eef G.W.M.

AU - Romijn, Fred P.T.H.M.

AU - Smulders, Yvo M.

AU - Post, Wendy J.

AU - Romijn, Johannes A.

AU - Krans, H. Michiel J.

PY - 2003/6/1

Y1 - 2003/6/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE - To compare steroids and their associations in men with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 52 adult men with type 1 diabetes without microvascular complications, compared with 53 control subjects matched for age and BMI. Steroids and their binding globulins were assessed in a single venous blood sample and a 24-h urine sample. RESULTS - In adult men with type 1 diabetes, total testosterone did not differ from healthy control subjects, but sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (42 [14-83] vs. 26 [9-117] nmol/l, P < 0.001), cortisol-binding globulin (CBG; 0.87 ± 0.17 vs. 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/l, P < 0.001), and cortisol levels (0.46 ± 0.16 vs. 0.39 ± 0.14 nmol/l, P < 0.01) were higher. The free testosterone index was lower (60 [17-139] vs. 82 [24-200], P < 0.001), and the calculated free testosterone was slightly lower (497 [115] vs. 542 [130], P < 0.064), but the pituitary-gonadal axis was not obviously affected in type 1 diabetes. The calculated free serum cortisol was not different, and 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion was lower in type 1 diabetes (121 [42-365] vs. 161 [55-284] nmol/24 h, P < 0.009). Testosterone was mainly associated with SHBG. Estimated portal insulin was a contributer to SHBG in control subjects but not in type 1 diabetes. Cortisol was associated with CBG. HbA1c contributed to CBG in men with diabetes but not in control subjects, whereas estimated portal insulin did not contribute. CONCLUSIONS - Adult men with fairly controlled type 1 diabetes without complications who are treated with subcutaneous insulin have a tendency to hypogonadism, as reflected by lower free testosterone levels in the presence of similar total testosterone levels and higher SHBG levels.

AB - OBJECTIVE - To compare steroids and their associations in men with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 52 adult men with type 1 diabetes without microvascular complications, compared with 53 control subjects matched for age and BMI. Steroids and their binding globulins were assessed in a single venous blood sample and a 24-h urine sample. RESULTS - In adult men with type 1 diabetes, total testosterone did not differ from healthy control subjects, but sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (42 [14-83] vs. 26 [9-117] nmol/l, P < 0.001), cortisol-binding globulin (CBG; 0.87 ± 0.17 vs. 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/l, P < 0.001), and cortisol levels (0.46 ± 0.16 vs. 0.39 ± 0.14 nmol/l, P < 0.01) were higher. The free testosterone index was lower (60 [17-139] vs. 82 [24-200], P < 0.001), and the calculated free testosterone was slightly lower (497 [115] vs. 542 [130], P < 0.064), but the pituitary-gonadal axis was not obviously affected in type 1 diabetes. The calculated free serum cortisol was not different, and 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion was lower in type 1 diabetes (121 [42-365] vs. 161 [55-284] nmol/24 h, P < 0.009). Testosterone was mainly associated with SHBG. Estimated portal insulin was a contributer to SHBG in control subjects but not in type 1 diabetes. Cortisol was associated with CBG. HbA1c contributed to CBG in men with diabetes but not in control subjects, whereas estimated portal insulin did not contribute. CONCLUSIONS - Adult men with fairly controlled type 1 diabetes without complications who are treated with subcutaneous insulin have a tendency to hypogonadism, as reflected by lower free testosterone levels in the presence of similar total testosterone levels and higher SHBG levels.

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U2 - 10.2337/diacare.26.6.1812

DO - 10.2337/diacare.26.6.1812

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 1812

EP - 1818

JO - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 0149-5992

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