Cerebellar granule neuronal progenitors (GNPs) are the precursors of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and are believed to be the cell of origin for medulloblastoma (MB), yet the molecular mechanisms governing GNP neurogenesis are poorly elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that storkhead box 1 (Stox1), a forkhead transcriptional factor, has a pivotal role in cerebellar granule neurogenesis and MB suppression. Expression of Stox1 is upregulated along with GNP differentiation and repressed by activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. Stox1 exerts its neurogenic and oncosuppressing effect via direct transcriptional repression of Math1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription activator essential for CGC genesis. This study illustrates a SHH-Stox1-Math1 regulatory axis in normal cerebellar development and MB formation.