Leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissues is considered to involve sequential steps of rolling over the endothelium, adhesion, and transmigration. In this model, the leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin and its ligands expressed on inflamed endothelial cells are involved in leukocyte rolling. We show that upon experimental and human renal ischemia/reperfusion, associated with severe endothelial damage, microvascular basement membrane (BM) heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are modified to bind L-selectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In an in vitro rolling and adhesion assay, L-selectin-binding HSPGs in artificial BM induced monocytic cell adhesion under reduced flow. We examined the in vivo relevance of BM HSPGs in renal ischemia/reperfusion using mice mutated for BM HSPGs perlecan (Hspg2 Δ3/Δ3), collagen type XVIII (Col18a1-/-), or both (crossbred Hspg2Δ3/Δ3xCol18a1-/-) and found that early monocyte/macrophage influx was impaired in Hspg2 Δ3/Δ3xCol18a1-/- mice. Finally, we confirmed our observations in human renal allograft biopsies, showing that loss of endothelial expression of the extracellular endosulfatase HSulf-1 may be a likely mechanism underlying the induction of L-selectin-and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-binding HSPGs associated with peritubular capillaries in human renal allograft rejection. Our results provide evidence for the concept that not only endothelial but also (microvascular) BM HSPGs can influence inflammatory responses. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology.