Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are angiogenic factors produced by tumor infiltrating macrophages. Here, we show that prolonged exposure of human monocytic/macrophage THP1 and U937 cells to sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug and inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), resulted in down-regulation of PD-ECGF/TP and IL-8 (mRNA, protein and activity) along with elimination of their induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. Concomitantly, sulfasalazine-exposed cells were markedly resistant to 5'-deoxyfluorouridine, the last intermediate of capecitabine requiring activation by PD-ECGF/TP. This is the first report suggesting that disruption of NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathways can provoke a marked and sustained down-regulation of macrophage-related angiogenic factors. However, this may also negatively affect capecitabine efficacy.