To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the SYNGAP1 phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort.MethodsPatients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants or chromosome 6p21.32 microdeletions incorporating SYNGAP1. We analyzed patients' phenotypes using a standardized epilepsy questionnaire, medical records, EEG, MRI, and seizure videos.ResultsWe included 57 patients (53% male, median age 8 years) with SYNGAP1 mutations (n = 53) or microdeletions (n = 4). Of the 57 patients, 56 had epilepsy: generalized in 55, with focal seizures in 7 and infantile spasms in 1. Median seizure onset age was 2 years. A novel type of drop attack was identified comprising eyelid myoclonia evolving to a myoclonic-atonic (n = 5) or atonic (n = 8) seizure. Seizure types included eyelid myoclonia with absences (65%), myoclonic seizures (34%), atypical (20%) and typical (18%) absences, and atonic seizures (14%), triggered by eating in 25%. Developmental delay preceded seizure onset in 54 of 56 (96%) patients for whom early developmental history was available. Developmental plateauing or regression occurred with seizures in 56 in the context of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Fifty-five of 57 patients had intellectual disability, which was moderate to severe in 50. Other common features included behavioral problems (73%); high pain threshold (72%); eating problems, including oral aversion (68%); hypotonia (67%); sleeping problems (62%); autism spectrum disorder (54%); and ataxia or gait abnormalities (51%).ConclusionsSYNGAP1 mutations cause a generalized DEE with a distinctive syndrome combining epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia with absences and myoclonic-atonic seizures, as well as a predilection to seizures triggered by eating.
Vlaskamp, D. R. M., Shaw, B. J., Burgess, R., Mei, D., Montomoli, M., Xie, H., ... Scheffer, I. E. (2019). SYNGAP1 encephalopathy: A distinctive generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
(2), E96-E107. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729