Systematic assessment of the growth plates of the wrist in young gymnasts: Development and validation of the Amsterdam MRI assessment of the Physis (AMPHYS) protocol

Laura S. Kox, Rik B. J. Kraan, Kees F. van Dijke, Robert Hemke, Sjoerd Jens, Milko C. de Jonge, Edwin H. G. Oei, Frank F. Smithuis, Maaike P. Terra, Mario Maas

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Abstract

Objectives To develop and validate a protocol for MRI assessment of the distal radial and ulnar periphyseal area in gymnasts and non-gymnasts. Methods Twenty-four gymnasts with wrist pain, 18 asymptomatic gymnasts and 24 non-gymnastic controls (33 girls) underwent MRI of the wrist on a 3T scanner. Sequences included coronal proton density-weighted images with and without fat saturation, and three-dimensional water-selective cartilage scan and T2 Dixon series. Skeletal age was determined using hand radiographs. Three experienced musculoskeletal radiologists established a checklist of possible (peri)physeal abnormalities based on literature and clinical experience. Five other musculoskeletal radiologists and residents evaluated 30 MRI scans (10 from each group) using this checklist and reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Fleiss' kappa. A final evaluation protocol was established containing only items with fair to excellent reliability. Results Twenty-seven items were assessed for reliability. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement was good to excellent (respective ICCs 0.60-0.91 and 0.60-0.78) for four epiphyseal bone marrow oedema-related items, physeal signal intensity, metaphyseal junction and depth of metaphyseal intrusions. For physeal thickness, thickness compared with proximal physis of first metacarpal, metaphyseal intrusions, physeal connection of intrusions and metaphyseal bone marrow signal intensity, intra-rater agreement was fair to excellent (ICC/kappa 0.55-0.85) and inter-rater agreement was fair (ICC/kappa 0.41-0.59). Twelve items were included in the final protocol. Conclusion The Amsterdam MRI assessment of the Physis protocol facilitates patient-friendly and reliable assessment of the (peri)physeal area in the radius and ulna.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000352
JournalBMJ open sport & exercise medicine
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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