Chronic intestinal failure (CIF) patients are at risk for developing intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), which can progress to end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy is the current reference standard to diagnose and monitor IFALD. However, due to its associated complications, biopsy is an unattractive tool in this respect. Our aim was to assess the evidence regarding non-invasive assessment of IFALD in the adult population and provide ideas to take this field further. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases in accordance with the PRISMA guideline. We included studies in the adult/mixed intestinal failure population, performing non-invasive diagnostic assessment of IFALD and using liver biopsy, 1H-MRS or MRI-PDFF as reference. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Four studies were included, assessing two serum (vitamin B12, FGF21) and two imaging tests (Fibroscan, CAUS). Three used liver biopsy as reference, all according to a different histological scoring system. One used 1H-MRS as reference. Vitamin B12 did not correlate with liver injury, Fibroscan did not correlate with fibrosis, but with cholestasis. FGF21 correlated with steatosis grade. Several CAUS parameters correlated with the degree of steatosis assessed by 1H-MRS. In conclusion, three tests show promise to non-invasively assess IFALD, but the limited data do not justify conclusions on the diagnostic value of the tested biomarkers. Hence, additional studies are needed. Identification of and validation for grading and staging of clinically relevant histomorphological parameters of IFALD is also crucial and a conceptual study set up is provided.
Huijbers, A., Koggel, L. M., Bronkhorst, C., Verheij, J., & Wanten, G. J. A. (2019). Systematic Review: Noninvasive Assessments of Intestinal Failure–Associated Liver Disease in the Adult Population. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 43(5), 615-626. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpen.1524