Objectives: The 2015 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology aimed to review immunodeficiency-related T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferations.
Methods: The Workshop Panel reviewed 88 T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations and rendered consensus diagnoses.
Results: Hyperplasias of T-cell subsets may be clonal; retained architecture and the clinical setting support a benign diagnosis. Specific associations include hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma with iatrogenic immunosuppression and breast implants with an indolent variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphomas rarely occur in the acquired immunodeficiency setting. Systemic T- and NK-cell lymphoma of childhood overlaps with chronic active EBV and reversible hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-related T-cell lymphoproliferations.
Conclusions: Immunodeficiencies predispose to T-cell hyperplasias, which must not be overdiagnosed as lymphoma. Many T-cell lymphomas in the immunodeficiency setting are likely coincidental, with specific exceptions. Systemic T- or NK-cell lymphomas are part of a spectrum of EBV+ T or NK lymphoproliferations and can present in the acquired immunodeficiency setting.