There is a growing understanding of why certain patients do or do not respond to checkpoint inhibition therapy. This opens new opportunities to reconsider and redevelop vaccine strategies to prime an anticancer immune response. Combination of such vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors will both provide the fuel and release the brake for an efficient anticancer response. Here, we discuss vaccine strategies that use C-type lectin receptor (CLR) targeting of APCs, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. APCs are a necessity for the priming of antigenspecific cytotoxic and helper T cells. Because CLRs are natural carbohydrate-recognition receptors highly expressed by multiple subsets of APCs and involved in uptake and processing of Ags for presentation, these receptors seem particularly interesting for targeting purposes.