To elucidate the role of the cytoskeleton regulating avidity or affinity changes in the leukocyte adhesion receptor lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (alpha(L)beta(2)), we generated mutant cytoplasmic LFA-1 receptors and expressed these into the erythroleukemic cell line K562. We determined whether intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated adhesion of LFA-1, lacking parts of its cytoplasmic tails, is regulated through receptor diffusion/clustering and/or by altered ligand binding affinity. All cytoplasmic deletion mutants that lack the complete beta(2) cytoplasmic tail and/or the conserved KVGFFKR sequence in the alpha(L) cytoplasmic tail were constitutively active and expressed high levels of the activation epitopes NKI-L16 and M24. Surprisingly, whereas these mutants showed a clustered cell surface distribution of LFA-1, the ligand-binding affinity as measured by titration of soluble ligand ICAM-1 remained unaltered. The notion that redistribution of LFA-1 does not alter ligand-binding affinity is further supported by the finding that disruption of the cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D did not alter the binding affinity nor adhesion to ICAM-1 of these mutants. Most cytoplasmic deletion mutants that spontaneously bound ICAM-1 were not capable to spread on ICAM-1, demonstrating that on these mutants LFA-1 is not coupled to the actin cytoskeleton. From these data we conclude that LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1 is predominantly regulated by receptor clustering and that affinity alterations do not necessarily coincide with strong ICAM-1 binding.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 17 Sep 1999|