Patient selection is suboptimal in most studies focused on identifying biological markers for neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus (BE). This study aims to describe a stringently selected community-based case-control cohort of non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) patients who progressed to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and BE patients who never progressed to be used for future biomarker studies. We identified all patients referred for endoscopic work-up of BE neoplasia at three tertiary referral centers for treatment of BE neoplasia between 2000 and 2013. We performed a detailed registration of any endoscopic surveillance history before neoplastic progression. Controls were selected from a retrospective BE surveillance registration in 10 community hospitals. A total of 887 patients were referred for endoscopic work-up of BE neoplasia. Based on predefined selection criteria, we identified 165 progressor patients (82% men; mean age 55 years ± 10.4) with a baseline endoscopy demonstrating NDBE > 2 years before neoplastic progression. Using the same predefined selection criteria, 723 nonprogressor patients (67% men; mean age 57 years ± 11.3) with >2 years of endoscopic surveillance were identified. Median length of the BE segment was 5 cm (IQR 4-7) in progressors and 4 cm (IQR 2-6) in controls. Median duration of surveillance was 89 months (IQR 54-139) in progressors and 76 months (IQR 47-116) in nonprogressors. Paraffin embedded biopsies are available for biomarker research in all patients. Ethical approval was obtained and material transfer agreements were signed with all 58 contributing pathology labs. This is the largest community-based case-control cohort of BE patients with and without progression to early neoplasia. The stringent selection criteria and the availability of paraffin embedded biopsy specimens make this a unique cohort for biomarker studies.