Only a few studies have investigated the metabolic consequences of social jetlag. Therefore, we examined the association of social jetlag with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort. We used cross-sectional data from the New Hoorn Study cohort (n = 1585, 47% men, age 60.8 ± 6 years). Social jetlag was calculated as the difference in midpoint sleep (in hours) between weekdays and weekend days. Poisson and linear regression models were used to study the associations, and age was regarded as a possible effect modifier. We adjusted for sex, employment status, education, smoking, physical activity, sleep duration, and body mass index. In the total population, we only observed an association between social jetlag and the metabolic syndrome, with prevalence ratios adjusted for sex, employment status, and educational levels of 1.64 (95% CI 1.1-2.4), for participants with >2 h social jetlag, compared with participants with <1 h social jetlag. However, we observed an interaction effect of median age (<61 years). In older participants (≥61 years), no significant associations were observed between social jetlag status, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes or prediabetes. In the younger group (<61 years), the adjusted prevalence ratios were 1.29 (95% CI 0.9-1.9) and 2.13 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for the metabolic syndrome and 1.39 (95% CI 1.1-1.9) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.2-2.5) for diabetes/prediabetes, for participants with 1-2 h and >2 h social jetlag, compared with participants with <1 h social jetlag. In conclusion, in our population-based cohort, social jetlag was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes/prediabetes, especially in younger (<61 years) participants.