Background: Esophagectomy is the key component of curative esophageal cancer treatment. Textbook outcome is a composite measure describing an optimal perioperative course, including variables related to radical resection, including at least 15 lymph nodes, and an uncomplicated postoperative course without hospital readmission. This study assessed clinicopathologic predictors of textbook outcome and the association of textbook outcome with survival in 2 tertiary referral centers. Methods: All patients with esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction and curative intent between 2007 and 2016 were included. Patients with carcinoma in situ and patients undergoing a salvage or nonelective procedure were excluded. The primary end point was the association of textbook outcome of esophageal cancer surgery with long-term survival. Secondary end points were clinicopathologic predictors of textbook outcome. Results: In total, 1065 patients were included, of whom 327 achieved textbook outcome (30.7%). Squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.80), hybrid approach (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.89), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or higher predicted worse textbook rates (ASA class II: OR, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.49; ASA class III or IV: OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96), whereas neoadjuvant therapy predicted a better textbook rate (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.31). Superior overall (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.93) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.96) were observed in the textbook outcome group. Conclusions: Achieved textbook outcome was associated with better overall and disease-free survival, thus illustrating the association of improved short-term outcomes and long-term survival and the importance of pursuing textbook outcome.