The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study

Mira S. Staphorst*, Marc A. Benninga, Margriet Bisschoff, Irma Bon, Jan J.V. Busschbach, Kay Diederen, Johannes B. Van Goudoever, Eric G. Haarman, Joke A.M. Hunfeld, Vincent V.W. Jaddoe, Karin J.M. De Jong, Johan C. De Jongste, Angelika Kindermann, Marsh Königs, Jaap Oosterlaan, Jan Passchier, Mariëlle W. Pijnenburg, Liesbeth Reneman, Lissy De Ridder, Hyke G. TammingaHenning W. Tiemeier, Reinier Timman, Suzanne Van De Vathorst

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort. We also describe children's suggestions for reducing discomfort. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Paediatric research at three academic hospitals. Patients 357 children with and without illnesses (8-18 years, mean=10.6 years) were enrolled: 307 from paediatric research studies and 50 from dental care. Main outcome measures We measured various generic forms of discomfort (nervousness, annoyance, pain, fright, boredom, tiredness) due to six common research procedures: buccal swabs, MRI scans, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, ultrasound imaging and venepunctures. Results Most children reported limited discomfort during the research procedures (means: 1-2.6 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared with dental check-ups, buccal swab tests, skin prick tests and ultrasound imaging were less discomforting, while MRI scans, venepunctures and pulmonary function tests caused a similar degree of discomfort. 60.3% of the children suggested providing distraction by showing movies to reduce discomfort. The exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between anxiety-proneness and discomfort. Conclusions The findings of this study support the acceptability of participation of children in the studied research procedures, which stimulates evidence-based research practice. Furthermore, the present study can be considered as a first step in providing benchmarks for discomfort of procedures in paediatric research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere016077
JournalBMJ Open
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017

Cite this

Staphorst, M. S., Benninga, M. A., Bisschoff, M., Bon, I., Busschbach, J. J. V., Diederen, K., ... Van De Vathorst, S. (2017). The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study. BMJ Open, 7(7), [e016077]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077