The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study

Mira S. Staphorst, Marc A. Benninga, Margriet Bisschoff, Irma Bon, Jan J.V. Busschbach, Kay Diederen, Johannes B. Van Goudoever, Eric G. Haarman, Joke A.M. Hunfeld, Vincent V.W. Jaddoe, Karin J.M. De Jong, Johan C. De Jongste, Angelika Kindermann, Marsh Königs, Jaap Oosterlaan, Jan Passchier, Mariëlle W. Pijnenburg, Liesbeth Reneman, Lissy De Ridder, Hyke G. Tamminga & 3 others Henning W. Tiemeier, Reinier Timman, Suzanne Van De Vathorst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort. We also describe children's suggestions for reducing discomfort. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Paediatric research at three academic hospitals. Patients 357 children with and without illnesses (8-18 years, mean=10.6 years) were enrolled: 307 from paediatric research studies and 50 from dental care. Main outcome measures We measured various generic forms of discomfort (nervousness, annoyance, pain, fright, boredom, tiredness) due to six common research procedures: buccal swabs, MRI scans, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, ultrasound imaging and venepunctures. Results Most children reported limited discomfort during the research procedures (means: 1-2.6 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared with dental check-ups, buccal swab tests, skin prick tests and ultrasound imaging were less discomforting, while MRI scans, venepunctures and pulmonary function tests caused a similar degree of discomfort. 60.3% of the children suggested providing distraction by showing movies to reduce discomfort. The exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between anxiety-proneness and discomfort. Conclusions The findings of this study support the acceptability of participation of children in the studied research procedures, which stimulates evidence-based research practice. Furthermore, the present study can be considered as a first step in providing benchmarks for discomfort of procedures in paediatric research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere016077
JournalBMJ Open
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017

Cite this

Staphorst, M. S., Benninga, M. A., Bisschoff, M., Bon, I., Busschbach, J. J. V., Diederen, K., ... Van De Vathorst, S. (2017). The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study. BMJ Open, 7(7), [e016077]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077
Staphorst, Mira S. ; Benninga, Marc A. ; Bisschoff, Margriet ; Bon, Irma ; Busschbach, Jan J.V. ; Diederen, Kay ; Van Goudoever, Johannes B. ; Haarman, Eric G. ; Hunfeld, Joke A.M. ; Jaddoe, Vincent V.W. ; De Jong, Karin J.M. ; De Jongste, Johan C. ; Kindermann, Angelika ; Königs, Marsh ; Oosterlaan, Jaap ; Passchier, Jan ; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W. ; Reneman, Liesbeth ; Ridder, Lissy De ; Tamminga, Hyke G. ; Tiemeier, Henning W. ; Timman, Reinier ; Van De Vathorst, Suzanne. / The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures : A descriptive study. In: BMJ Open. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 7.
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abstract = "Objective The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort. We also describe children's suggestions for reducing discomfort. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Paediatric research at three academic hospitals. Patients 357 children with and without illnesses (8-18 years, mean=10.6 years) were enrolled: 307 from paediatric research studies and 50 from dental care. Main outcome measures We measured various generic forms of discomfort (nervousness, annoyance, pain, fright, boredom, tiredness) due to six common research procedures: buccal swabs, MRI scans, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, ultrasound imaging and venepunctures. Results Most children reported limited discomfort during the research procedures (means: 1-2.6 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared with dental check-ups, buccal swab tests, skin prick tests and ultrasound imaging were less discomforting, while MRI scans, venepunctures and pulmonary function tests caused a similar degree of discomfort. 60.3{\%} of the children suggested providing distraction by showing movies to reduce discomfort. The exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between anxiety-proneness and discomfort. Conclusions The findings of this study support the acceptability of participation of children in the studied research procedures, which stimulates evidence-based research practice. Furthermore, the present study can be considered as a first step in providing benchmarks for discomfort of procedures in paediatric research.",
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Staphorst, MS, Benninga, MA, Bisschoff, M, Bon, I, Busschbach, JJV, Diederen, K, Van Goudoever, JB, Haarman, EG, Hunfeld, JAM, Jaddoe, VVW, De Jong, KJM, De Jongste, JC, Kindermann, A, Königs, M, Oosterlaan, J, Passchier, J, Pijnenburg, MW, Reneman, L, Ridder, LD, Tamminga, HG, Tiemeier, HW, Timman, R & Van De Vathorst, S 2017, 'The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study' BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 7, e016077. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077

The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures : A descriptive study. / Staphorst, Mira S.; Benninga, Marc A.; Bisschoff, Margriet; Bon, Irma; Busschbach, Jan J.V.; Diederen, Kay; Van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Haarman, Eric G.; Hunfeld, Joke A.M.; Jaddoe, Vincent V.W.; De Jong, Karin J.M.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kindermann, Angelika; Königs, Marsh; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Passchier, Jan; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Ridder, Lissy De; Tamminga, Hyke G.; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Timman, Reinier; Van De Vathorst, Suzanne.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 7, No. 7, e016077, 01.07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures

T2 - A descriptive study

AU - Staphorst, Mira S.

AU - Benninga, Marc A.

AU - Bisschoff, Margriet

AU - Bon, Irma

AU - Busschbach, Jan J.V.

AU - Diederen, Kay

AU - Van Goudoever, Johannes B.

AU - Haarman, Eric G.

AU - Hunfeld, Joke A.M.

AU - Jaddoe, Vincent V.W.

AU - De Jong, Karin J.M.

AU - De Jongste, Johan C.

AU - Kindermann, Angelika

AU - Königs, Marsh

AU - Oosterlaan, Jaap

AU - Passchier, Jan

AU - Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W.

AU - Reneman, Liesbeth

AU - Ridder, Lissy De

AU - Tamminga, Hyke G.

AU - Tiemeier, Henning W.

AU - Timman, Reinier

AU - Van De Vathorst, Suzanne

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Objective The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort. We also describe children's suggestions for reducing discomfort. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Paediatric research at three academic hospitals. Patients 357 children with and without illnesses (8-18 years, mean=10.6 years) were enrolled: 307 from paediatric research studies and 50 from dental care. Main outcome measures We measured various generic forms of discomfort (nervousness, annoyance, pain, fright, boredom, tiredness) due to six common research procedures: buccal swabs, MRI scans, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, ultrasound imaging and venepunctures. Results Most children reported limited discomfort during the research procedures (means: 1-2.6 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared with dental check-ups, buccal swab tests, skin prick tests and ultrasound imaging were less discomforting, while MRI scans, venepunctures and pulmonary function tests caused a similar degree of discomfort. 60.3% of the children suggested providing distraction by showing movies to reduce discomfort. The exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between anxiety-proneness and discomfort. Conclusions The findings of this study support the acceptability of participation of children in the studied research procedures, which stimulates evidence-based research practice. Furthermore, the present study can be considered as a first step in providing benchmarks for discomfort of procedures in paediatric research.

AB - Objective The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort. We also describe children's suggestions for reducing discomfort. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Paediatric research at three academic hospitals. Patients 357 children with and without illnesses (8-18 years, mean=10.6 years) were enrolled: 307 from paediatric research studies and 50 from dental care. Main outcome measures We measured various generic forms of discomfort (nervousness, annoyance, pain, fright, boredom, tiredness) due to six common research procedures: buccal swabs, MRI scans, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, ultrasound imaging and venepunctures. Results Most children reported limited discomfort during the research procedures (means: 1-2.6 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared with dental check-ups, buccal swab tests, skin prick tests and ultrasound imaging were less discomforting, while MRI scans, venepunctures and pulmonary function tests caused a similar degree of discomfort. 60.3% of the children suggested providing distraction by showing movies to reduce discomfort. The exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between anxiety-proneness and discomfort. Conclusions The findings of this study support the acceptability of participation of children in the studied research procedures, which stimulates evidence-based research practice. Furthermore, the present study can be considered as a first step in providing benchmarks for discomfort of procedures in paediatric research.

KW - child

KW - discomfort

KW - ethics

KW - research participation

KW - self report

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U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077

M3 - Article

VL - 7

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 7

M1 - e016077

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Staphorst MS, Benninga MA, Bisschoff M, Bon I, Busschbach JJV, Diederen K et al. The child's perspective on discomfort during medical research procedures: A descriptive study. BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 1;7(7). e016077. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016077