Across the lifespan, type 1 diabetes mellitus has a profound (neuro)psychological impact. In young people, type 1 diabetes can interfere with psychosocial development and hamper school performance. In adulthood, it can interfere with work life, relationships and parenting. A substantial minority of adults with type 1 diabetes experience coping difficulties and high diabetes-related distress. In youth and adulthood, type 1 diabetes is related to mild cognitive decrements as well as affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety. There is limited literature available that explores the interaction between cognitive and psychological comorbidity and underlying mechanisms. The aims of the present narrative review were to summarize the current state of the literature regarding both cognitive and psychological comorbidities in type 1 diabetes across the lifespan, and to explore potential links between the two domains of interest to make suggestions for future research and clinical practice.