The confidence in diabetes self-care scale: Psychometric properties of a new measure of diabetes-specific self-efficacy in Dutch and U.S. patients with type 1 diabetes

Nicole C.W. Van Der Ven*, Katie Weinger, Joyce Yi, Frans Pouwer, Herman Adèr, Henk M. Van Der Ploeg, Frank J. Snoek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVE - To examine psychometric properties of the Confidence in Diabetes Self-Care (CIDS) scale, a newly developed instrument assessing diabetes-specific self-efficacy in Dutch and U.S. patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Reliability and validity of the CIDS scale were evaluated in Dutch (n = 151) and U.S. (n = 190) outpatients with type 1 diabetes. In addition to the CIDS scale, assessment included HbA1c, emotional distress, fear of hypoglycemia, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and self-care behavior. The Dutch sample completed additional measures on perceived burden and importance of self-care. Test-retest reliability was established in a second Dutch sample (n = 62). RESULTS - Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86 for Dutch patients and 0.90 U.S. patients) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) of the CIDS scale were high. Exploratory factor analysis showed one strong general factor. Spearman's correlations between the CIDS scale and other measures were moderate and in the expected directions, and high HbA1c levels were associated with low CIDS scores in the U.S. sample only. Low CIDS scores were positively associated with self-care but not with glycemic control in the original samples. CIDS scores in the U.S. and Dutch samples did not show any statistically significant differences. U.S. men had higher CIDS scores than U.S. women. CONCLUSIONS - The CIDS scale is a reliable and valid measure of diabetes-specific self-efficacy for use in patients with type 1 diabetes. High psychometric similarity allows for cross-cultural comparisons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-718
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2003

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