Both IL-17 and Th17 cells have been ascribed tumor promoting as well as tumor suppressing functions. We reviewed the literature on correlations between IL-17 versus Th17 cells and survival in human cancer, following the PRISMA guidelines. Serum, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and peripheral blood samples were most frequently studied. High IL-17 quantities were correlated with poor prognosis, whereas high Th17 cell frequencies were correlated with improved prognosis. Since Th17 cells are a subpopulation of IL-17+ cells and had a different correlation with prognosis than total IL-17, we substantiate that a distinction should be made between Th17 and other IL-17+ cells.