Background: Insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) plays an important role in the complex association between nutrition, growth, and maturation in extremely and very preterm infants. Nevertheless, in this population, research on associations between IGF‐1 and nutrition is limited. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the possible associations between the course of IGF‐1 levels and nutrient intake between preterm birth and 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods: 87 infants born between 24 and 32 weeks gestational age were followed up to 36 weeks PMA. Actual daily macronutrient intake was calculated, and growth was assessed weekly. IGF‐1 was sampled from umbilical cord blood at birth and every other week thereafter. Results: There was an inverse relationship between the amount of parenteral nutrition in the second week of life and IGF‐1. Total protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, as well as total energy intake, primarily showed a positive association with IGF‐1 levels, particularly between 30 and 33 weeks PMA. Gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and weight were significant confounders in the association between nutrient intake and IGF‐1 levels. Conclusion: Parenteral nutrition was found to be a negative predictor of IGF‐1 levels, and there could potentially be a time frame in which macronutrient intake is unable to impact IGF‐1 levels. Future research should aim to narrow down this time frame and to gain more insight into factors enhancing or decreasing the response of IGF‐1 to nutrition, e.g., age and inflammatory state, to align nutritional interventions accordingly.