AIMS: To assess the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors on postprandial haemodynamics.
METHODS: 57 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean±SD age 62.8±6.9years; BMI 31.8±4.1kg/m(2); HbA1c 7.3±0.6%) were included in an acute (exenatide- or placebo-infusion) and 12-week (liraglutide, sitagliptin or placebo) randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Systemic haemodynamics (oscillometric technique and finger photoplethysmography), vascular stiffness (tonometry), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)-activity (heart rate variability) were determined in the fasting state and following a standardised mixed meal.
RESULTS: In both studies, postprandial blood pressure (BP) decreased during placebo-intervention. Compared with placebo, acute exenatide-infusion increased postprandial diastolic BP (6.7 [95%-confidence interval 3.6-9.9]mmHg, p<0.001) and vascular resistance (683.6 [438.5-928.8]dyn*s/cm(5)/1.73m(2), p<0.001), while cardiac index decreased (0.6 [0.40.8]L/min/1.73m(2); p<0.001). Systolic BP, augmentation index and SNS-activity were unaffected. Twelve-week liraglutide-treatment did not affect postprandial haemodynamics, while sitagliptin decreased diastolic BP (3.5 [0.0-6.9] mmHg; p=0.050), vascular resistance (309.9 [66.6-553.1]dyn*s/cm(5)/1.73m(2); p=0.013) and cardiac index (0.3 [0.0-0.6]L/min/1.73m(2); p=0.040), compared with placebo. Neither liraglutide nor sitagliptin affected SNS-activity or augmentation index. All treatments significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute exenatide-infusion prevented the meal-induced decline in diastolic BP, although prolonged liraglutide intervention did not affect postprandial haemodynamics. The meal-induced drop in BP was augmented during sitagliptin-treatment.