Despite the increasing knowledge of the genomic landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), prediction merely based on genetics fails to anticipate outcome, presumably due to the heterogeneous composition of the leukemic clone determining complex interactions between different genetic abnormalities. Therefore, the introduction of a post-treatment biomarker exploring the quality of response to therapy such as assessment of measurable (previously minimal) residual disease (MRD) may lead to refinements of the prognostic assessment in AML. In this view, the European LeukemiaNet has recently endorsed the achievement of a MRD negative morphologic complete remission as a purpose the treatment. Techniques like multiparametric flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction have reached a level of sensitivity and specificity that make them ready for introduction in clinical practice. In the present review, we will give an update on the efforts in harmonization and/or standardization of MRD assessment in AML, focusing on the newest acquisitions in the clinical applications of MRD, and considering issues like relationship of MRD with leukemic stem cells or MRD assessment in peripheral blood.
|Journal||Seminars in Hematology|
|Early online date||2018|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2019|