The Fatigue and Fitness Test for Teams (FFITT): A practical option for monitoring athletes in a team as individuals

Lindsay T. Starling, Stacy Nellemann, Andrew Parkes, Michael I. Lambert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We developed the Fatigue and Fitness Test for Teams (FFITT) to address the challenges of monitoring players in a team simultaneously. The test, which takes 8 min for the entire team, incorporates subjective measures of well-being (RTT-Q), and objective measures of the autonomic system (HRR60s) and neuromuscular function (SLJ). The aim of this study was to present the rationale for the FFITT as a novel athlete monitoring protocol and to measure the reliability of each component of the test. The internal consistency of the RTT-Q questions ranged from α = 0.69–0.92. All questions had an α > 0.83, with one exception of question ‘Rate the well-being/stress your school/university/work is causing you to feel’ which had an α = 0.69. The reliability of the HRR60s and SLJ was high (R = 0.92, and 0.91 respectively). The absolute typical error of measurement (TEM) of the SLJ was 8 cm and HRR60s was 3 beats. When expressed relatively the CVTEM of HRR60s was 8.4% and SLJ was 3.0%. Based on the TEM the HRR60s and SLJ could detect medium and large changes in fatigue and fitness. In absolute terms this equates to more than 5 bpm (HRR60s) and more than 13 cm (SLJ). The FFITT has the potential to satisfy both scientific principles and the coach’s demands of a practical monitoring protocol for frequent use in a team.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 May 2019
Externally publishedYes

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