The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

R P van der Zee, O Richel, H J C de Vries, J M Prins

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase.

METHODS: The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for trends in time in incidence of anal cancer in the general population, for risk factors and risk groups for anal cancer, and for incidence trends in time in these risk groups.

RESULTS: Age-adjusted incidence rates have increased in all Western countries during the last decades, up to 2.2% per year. Infection with the oncogenic human papilloma virus is the most important aetiological factor. Besides increasing age, other risk factors have been identified: smoking, sexual practices, in particular receptive anal intercourse, and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) is significantly increased in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) (SIR 77.8), organ transplant recipients (SIR approx. 6) and women with a history of cervical cancer (SIR 6) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIR 16). Absolute numbers of HIV-positive MSM and organ transplant recipients have increased significantly in the last decades.

CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of anal cancer can be partially explained by an increase in the incidence rate in and absolute number of the most important risk group: HIV-positive MSM. The increasing number of renal transplant recipients probably also contributes. Further studies should answer the question whether these risk groups would benefit from preventive screening for anal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-11
Number of pages11
JournalThe Netherlands journal of medicine
Volume71
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

Cite this

@article{033e221a8baa49859dfe074169ee514f,
title = "The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase.METHODS: The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for trends in time in incidence of anal cancer in the general population, for risk factors and risk groups for anal cancer, and for incidence trends in time in these risk groups.RESULTS: Age-adjusted incidence rates have increased in all Western countries during the last decades, up to 2.2{\%} per year. Infection with the oncogenic human papilloma virus is the most important aetiological factor. Besides increasing age, other risk factors have been identified: smoking, sexual practices, in particular receptive anal intercourse, and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) is significantly increased in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) (SIR 77.8), organ transplant recipients (SIR approx. 6) and women with a history of cervical cancer (SIR 6) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIR 16). Absolute numbers of HIV-positive MSM and organ transplant recipients have increased significantly in the last decades.CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of anal cancer can be partially explained by an increase in the incidence rate in and absolute number of the most important risk group: HIV-positive MSM. The increasing number of renal transplant recipients probably also contributes. Further studies should answer the question whether these risk groups would benefit from preventive screening for anal cancer.",
keywords = "Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology, Female, HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology, Homosexuality, Male, Humans, Incidence, Male, Organ Transplantation, Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology, Risk Factors, Sexual Behavior, Smoking/epidemiology, Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology",
author = "{van der Zee}, {R P} and O Richel and {de Vries}, {H J C} and Prins, {J M}",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
language = "English",
volume = "71",
pages = "401--11",
journal = "The Netherlands journal of medicine",
issn = "1872-9061",
number = "8",

}

The increasing incidence of anal cancer : can it be explained by trends in risk groups? / van der Zee, R P; Richel, O; de Vries, H J C; Prins, J M.

In: The Netherlands journal of medicine, Vol. 71, No. 8, 10.2013, p. 401-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The increasing incidence of anal cancer

T2 - can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

AU - van der Zee, R P

AU - Richel, O

AU - de Vries, H J C

AU - Prins, J M

PY - 2013/10

Y1 - 2013/10

N2 - BACKGROUND: Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase.METHODS: The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for trends in time in incidence of anal cancer in the general population, for risk factors and risk groups for anal cancer, and for incidence trends in time in these risk groups.RESULTS: Age-adjusted incidence rates have increased in all Western countries during the last decades, up to 2.2% per year. Infection with the oncogenic human papilloma virus is the most important aetiological factor. Besides increasing age, other risk factors have been identified: smoking, sexual practices, in particular receptive anal intercourse, and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) is significantly increased in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) (SIR 77.8), organ transplant recipients (SIR approx. 6) and women with a history of cervical cancer (SIR 6) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIR 16). Absolute numbers of HIV-positive MSM and organ transplant recipients have increased significantly in the last decades.CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of anal cancer can be partially explained by an increase in the incidence rate in and absolute number of the most important risk group: HIV-positive MSM. The increasing number of renal transplant recipients probably also contributes. Further studies should answer the question whether these risk groups would benefit from preventive screening for anal cancer.

AB - BACKGROUND: Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase.METHODS: The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for trends in time in incidence of anal cancer in the general population, for risk factors and risk groups for anal cancer, and for incidence trends in time in these risk groups.RESULTS: Age-adjusted incidence rates have increased in all Western countries during the last decades, up to 2.2% per year. Infection with the oncogenic human papilloma virus is the most important aetiological factor. Besides increasing age, other risk factors have been identified: smoking, sexual practices, in particular receptive anal intercourse, and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) is significantly increased in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) (SIR 77.8), organ transplant recipients (SIR approx. 6) and women with a history of cervical cancer (SIR 6) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIR 16). Absolute numbers of HIV-positive MSM and organ transplant recipients have increased significantly in the last decades.CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of anal cancer can be partially explained by an increase in the incidence rate in and absolute number of the most important risk group: HIV-positive MSM. The increasing number of renal transplant recipients probably also contributes. Further studies should answer the question whether these risk groups would benefit from preventive screening for anal cancer.

KW - Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology

KW - Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology

KW - Female

KW - HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology

KW - Homosexuality, Male

KW - Humans

KW - Incidence

KW - Male

KW - Organ Transplantation

KW - Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Sexual Behavior

KW - Smoking/epidemiology

KW - Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology

M3 - Review article

VL - 71

SP - 401

EP - 411

JO - The Netherlands journal of medicine

JF - The Netherlands journal of medicine

SN - 1872-9061

IS - 8

ER -