The inflammatory marker GDF-15 is not independently associated with late-life depression

C E Teunissen, S Durieux-Lu, M A Blankenstein, R C Oude Voshaar, H C Comijs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an inflammatory molecule that reacts to cell stress. Since major depression is associated with inflammation, we examined whether GDF-15 levels are elevated in patients with late-life depression.

METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were analyzed in 350 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in the last six months and 128 non-depressed controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons (age ≥ 60 years). Major depressive disorder and age of onset were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS-30). Multiple linear regression models were applied to study depression (diagnosis, onset age, severity, antidepressant drug use) as determinant of GDF-15 level, adjusted for demographic and clinical variables.

RESULTS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were 22% higher in patients with major depression compared to controls. Within the depressed group, levels were higher in patients with older age of onset. GDF-15 levels showed a small, positive correlation to the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and C-reactive protein (r=0.23, and 0.24, p<0.05). This increase was independent from comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, rheumatism and diabetes, and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, this increase was dependent on lifestyle factors as smoking, physical activity and alcohol use. Within the depressed subgroup, neither depression severity or antidepressant drug use was associated with GDF-15 levels in the fully adjusted models.

CONCLUSION: The inflammatory factor GDF-15 does not seem to be an independent inflammatory marker for late-life major depressive disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-49
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Volume83
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016

Cite this

@article{e2fe10a587c642899d8d1b39c523a385,
title = "The inflammatory marker GDF-15 is not independently associated with late-life depression",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an inflammatory molecule that reacts to cell stress. Since major depression is associated with inflammation, we examined whether GDF-15 levels are elevated in patients with late-life depression.METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were analyzed in 350 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in the last six months and 128 non-depressed controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons (age ≥ 60 years). Major depressive disorder and age of onset were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS-30). Multiple linear regression models were applied to study depression (diagnosis, onset age, severity, antidepressant drug use) as determinant of GDF-15 level, adjusted for demographic and clinical variables.RESULTS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were 22{\%} higher in patients with major depression compared to controls. Within the depressed group, levels were higher in patients with older age of onset. GDF-15 levels showed a small, positive correlation to the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and C-reactive protein (r=0.23, and 0.24, p<0.05). This increase was independent from comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, rheumatism and diabetes, and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, this increase was dependent on lifestyle factors as smoking, physical activity and alcohol use. Within the depressed subgroup, neither depression severity or antidepressant drug use was associated with GDF-15 levels in the fully adjusted models.CONCLUSION: The inflammatory factor GDF-15 does not seem to be an independent inflammatory marker for late-life major depressive disorder.",
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author = "Teunissen, {C E} and S Durieux-Lu and Blankenstein, {M A} and {Oude Voshaar}, {R C} and Comijs, {H C}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.03.003",
language = "English",
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pages = "46--49",
journal = "Journal of Psychosomatic Research",
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The inflammatory marker GDF-15 is not independently associated with late-life depression. / Teunissen, C E; Durieux-Lu, S; Blankenstein, M A; Oude Voshaar, R C; Comijs, H C.

In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 83, 04.2016, p. 46-49.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The inflammatory marker GDF-15 is not independently associated with late-life depression

AU - Teunissen, C E

AU - Durieux-Lu, S

AU - Blankenstein, M A

AU - Oude Voshaar, R C

AU - Comijs, H C

N1 - Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2016/4

Y1 - 2016/4

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an inflammatory molecule that reacts to cell stress. Since major depression is associated with inflammation, we examined whether GDF-15 levels are elevated in patients with late-life depression.METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were analyzed in 350 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in the last six months and 128 non-depressed controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons (age ≥ 60 years). Major depressive disorder and age of onset were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS-30). Multiple linear regression models were applied to study depression (diagnosis, onset age, severity, antidepressant drug use) as determinant of GDF-15 level, adjusted for demographic and clinical variables.RESULTS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were 22% higher in patients with major depression compared to controls. Within the depressed group, levels were higher in patients with older age of onset. GDF-15 levels showed a small, positive correlation to the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and C-reactive protein (r=0.23, and 0.24, p<0.05). This increase was independent from comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, rheumatism and diabetes, and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, this increase was dependent on lifestyle factors as smoking, physical activity and alcohol use. Within the depressed subgroup, neither depression severity or antidepressant drug use was associated with GDF-15 levels in the fully adjusted models.CONCLUSION: The inflammatory factor GDF-15 does not seem to be an independent inflammatory marker for late-life major depressive disorder.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an inflammatory molecule that reacts to cell stress. Since major depression is associated with inflammation, we examined whether GDF-15 levels are elevated in patients with late-life depression.METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were analyzed in 350 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in the last six months and 128 non-depressed controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons (age ≥ 60 years). Major depressive disorder and age of onset were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS-30). Multiple linear regression models were applied to study depression (diagnosis, onset age, severity, antidepressant drug use) as determinant of GDF-15 level, adjusted for demographic and clinical variables.RESULTS: Plasma GDF-15 levels were 22% higher in patients with major depression compared to controls. Within the depressed group, levels were higher in patients with older age of onset. GDF-15 levels showed a small, positive correlation to the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and C-reactive protein (r=0.23, and 0.24, p<0.05). This increase was independent from comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, rheumatism and diabetes, and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, this increase was dependent on lifestyle factors as smoking, physical activity and alcohol use. Within the depressed subgroup, neither depression severity or antidepressant drug use was associated with GDF-15 levels in the fully adjusted models.CONCLUSION: The inflammatory factor GDF-15 does not seem to be an independent inflammatory marker for late-life major depressive disorder.

KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Alcohol Drinking

KW - Antidepressive Agents

KW - Biomarkers

KW - C-Reactive Protein

KW - Comorbidity

KW - Depression

KW - Depressive Disorder, Major

KW - Female

KW - Growth Differentiation Factor 15

KW - Humans

KW - Inflammation

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Life Style

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Netherlands

KW - Personality Inventory

KW - Severity of Illness Index

KW - Smoking

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.03.003

DO - 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.03.003

M3 - Article

VL - 83

SP - 46

EP - 49

JO - Journal of Psychosomatic Research

JF - Journal of Psychosomatic Research

SN - 0022-3999

ER -