The influence of different muscle mass measurements on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia

Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Jacqueline A.E. Langius, Annemarie Becker, Henk M.W. Verheul, Marian A.E. de van der Schueren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Progressive loss of muscle mass is a major characteristic of cancer cachexia. Consensus definitions for cachexia provide different options to measure muscle mass. This study describes the effect of different methods to determine muscle mass on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In addition, the association of cachexia with other features of cachexia, quality of life, and survival was explored. Methods: Prior to chemotherapy, cachexia was assessed by weight loss, body mass index, and muscle mass measurements, the latter by mid-upper arm muscle area (MUAMA), computed tomography (CT) scans, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, appetite, inflammation, muscle strength, fatigue, quality of life, and survival were measured, and associations with cachexia were explored. Results: Included were 241 patients with advanced cancer of the lung (36%), colon/rectum (31%), prostate (18%), or breast (15%). Mean age was 64 ± 10 years; 54% was male. Prevalence of low muscle mass was as follows: 13% with MUAMA, 59% with CT, and 93% with BIA. In turn, the prevalence of cachexia was 37, 43, and 48%, whereby weight loss >5% was the most prominent component of being defined cachectic. Irrespective of type of muscle measurement, patients with cachexia presented more often with anorexia, inflammation, low muscle strength, and fatigue and had lower quality of life. Patients with cachexia had worse overall survival compared with patients without cachexia: HRs 2.00 (1.42–2.83) with MUAMA, 1.64 (1.15–2.34) with CT, and 1.50 (1.05–2.14) with BIA. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of low muscle mass in patients with cancer depended largely on the type of muscle measurement, this had little influence on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia (as the majority of patients was already defined cachectic based on weight loss). New studies are warranted to further elucidate the additional role of muscle measurements in the diagnosis of cachexia and the association with clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-622
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

Cite this

@article{42be954ca085410caf368b2ad31c255a,
title = "The influence of different muscle mass measurements on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia",
abstract = "Background: Progressive loss of muscle mass is a major characteristic of cancer cachexia. Consensus definitions for cachexia provide different options to measure muscle mass. This study describes the effect of different methods to determine muscle mass on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In addition, the association of cachexia with other features of cachexia, quality of life, and survival was explored. Methods: Prior to chemotherapy, cachexia was assessed by weight loss, body mass index, and muscle mass measurements, the latter by mid-upper arm muscle area (MUAMA), computed tomography (CT) scans, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, appetite, inflammation, muscle strength, fatigue, quality of life, and survival were measured, and associations with cachexia were explored. Results: Included were 241 patients with advanced cancer of the lung (36{\%}), colon/rectum (31{\%}), prostate (18{\%}), or breast (15{\%}). Mean age was 64 ± 10 years; 54{\%} was male. Prevalence of low muscle mass was as follows: 13{\%} with MUAMA, 59{\%} with CT, and 93{\%} with BIA. In turn, the prevalence of cachexia was 37, 43, and 48{\%}, whereby weight loss >5{\%} was the most prominent component of being defined cachectic. Irrespective of type of muscle measurement, patients with cachexia presented more often with anorexia, inflammation, low muscle strength, and fatigue and had lower quality of life. Patients with cachexia had worse overall survival compared with patients without cachexia: HRs 2.00 (1.42–2.83) with MUAMA, 1.64 (1.15–2.34) with CT, and 1.50 (1.05–2.14) with BIA. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of low muscle mass in patients with cancer depended largely on the type of muscle measurement, this had little influence on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia (as the majority of patients was already defined cachectic based on weight loss). New studies are warranted to further elucidate the additional role of muscle measurements in the diagnosis of cachexia and the association with clinical outcomes.",
keywords = "Cachexia, Cancer, Muscle mass",
author = "Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen and Langius, {Jacqueline A.E.} and Annemarie Becker and Verheul, {Henk M.W.} and {de van der Schueren}, {Marian A.E.}",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/jcsm.12200",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "615--622",
journal = "Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle",
issn = "2190-5991",
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The influence of different muscle mass measurements on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. / Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A.E.; Becker, Annemarie; Verheul, Henk M.W.; de van der Schueren, Marian A.E.

In: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, Vol. 8, No. 4, 01.08.2017, p. 615-622.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The influence of different muscle mass measurements on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia

AU - Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne

AU - Langius, Jacqueline A.E.

AU - Becker, Annemarie

AU - Verheul, Henk M.W.

AU - de van der Schueren, Marian A.E.

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - Background: Progressive loss of muscle mass is a major characteristic of cancer cachexia. Consensus definitions for cachexia provide different options to measure muscle mass. This study describes the effect of different methods to determine muscle mass on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In addition, the association of cachexia with other features of cachexia, quality of life, and survival was explored. Methods: Prior to chemotherapy, cachexia was assessed by weight loss, body mass index, and muscle mass measurements, the latter by mid-upper arm muscle area (MUAMA), computed tomography (CT) scans, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, appetite, inflammation, muscle strength, fatigue, quality of life, and survival were measured, and associations with cachexia were explored. Results: Included were 241 patients with advanced cancer of the lung (36%), colon/rectum (31%), prostate (18%), or breast (15%). Mean age was 64 ± 10 years; 54% was male. Prevalence of low muscle mass was as follows: 13% with MUAMA, 59% with CT, and 93% with BIA. In turn, the prevalence of cachexia was 37, 43, and 48%, whereby weight loss >5% was the most prominent component of being defined cachectic. Irrespective of type of muscle measurement, patients with cachexia presented more often with anorexia, inflammation, low muscle strength, and fatigue and had lower quality of life. Patients with cachexia had worse overall survival compared with patients without cachexia: HRs 2.00 (1.42–2.83) with MUAMA, 1.64 (1.15–2.34) with CT, and 1.50 (1.05–2.14) with BIA. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of low muscle mass in patients with cancer depended largely on the type of muscle measurement, this had little influence on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia (as the majority of patients was already defined cachectic based on weight loss). New studies are warranted to further elucidate the additional role of muscle measurements in the diagnosis of cachexia and the association with clinical outcomes.

AB - Background: Progressive loss of muscle mass is a major characteristic of cancer cachexia. Consensus definitions for cachexia provide different options to measure muscle mass. This study describes the effect of different methods to determine muscle mass on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In addition, the association of cachexia with other features of cachexia, quality of life, and survival was explored. Methods: Prior to chemotherapy, cachexia was assessed by weight loss, body mass index, and muscle mass measurements, the latter by mid-upper arm muscle area (MUAMA), computed tomography (CT) scans, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, appetite, inflammation, muscle strength, fatigue, quality of life, and survival were measured, and associations with cachexia were explored. Results: Included were 241 patients with advanced cancer of the lung (36%), colon/rectum (31%), prostate (18%), or breast (15%). Mean age was 64 ± 10 years; 54% was male. Prevalence of low muscle mass was as follows: 13% with MUAMA, 59% with CT, and 93% with BIA. In turn, the prevalence of cachexia was 37, 43, and 48%, whereby weight loss >5% was the most prominent component of being defined cachectic. Irrespective of type of muscle measurement, patients with cachexia presented more often with anorexia, inflammation, low muscle strength, and fatigue and had lower quality of life. Patients with cachexia had worse overall survival compared with patients without cachexia: HRs 2.00 (1.42–2.83) with MUAMA, 1.64 (1.15–2.34) with CT, and 1.50 (1.05–2.14) with BIA. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of low muscle mass in patients with cancer depended largely on the type of muscle measurement, this had little influence on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia (as the majority of patients was already defined cachectic based on weight loss). New studies are warranted to further elucidate the additional role of muscle measurements in the diagnosis of cachexia and the association with clinical outcomes.

KW - Cachexia

KW - Cancer

KW - Muscle mass

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U2 - 10.1002/jcsm.12200

DO - 10.1002/jcsm.12200

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 615

EP - 622

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SN - 2190-5991

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