The Interaction between the Gut Microbiome and Bile Acids in Cardiometabolic Diseases

Cengiz Callender*, Ilias Attaye, Max Nieuwdorp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMD) are a spectrum of diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, atheroscle-rosis, non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and metabolic syndrome) that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has long been known that bile acids (BA), which are endogenously produced signalling molecules from cholesterol, can affect CMD risk and progression and directly affect the gut microbiome (GM). Moreover, studies focusing on the GM and CMD risk have dramatically increased in the past decade. It has also become clear that the GM can function as a “new” endocrine organ. BA and GM have a complex and interdependent relationship with several CMD pathways. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the interplay between BA metabolism, the GM, and CMD risk and progression.
Original languageEnglish
Article number65
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022

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