Aims: Different studies point to a link between glucose metabolism and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23), an osteocyte-derived phosphaturic hormone. We aimed to investigate in humans the effect of (I) a glucose load and (II) a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp on FGF23 concentrations and conversely (III) the effect of a diet-induced increase in FGF23 concentration on glucose and insulin concentrations. Methods: Plasma cFGF23 concentrations were measured during: I. an oral glucose tolerance test in eight adults with impaired glucose tolerance and vitamin D deficiency and II. a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in nine healthy adults. III. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured in nine healthy adults receiving a single-day phosphate-enriched or -restricted diet. Results: I. A glucose load decreased FGF23 and phosphate concentrations. II. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased phosphate concentrations, but did not affect FGF23 concentrations. III. Fasting insulin and glucose concentrations remained unchanged after a diet-induced increase in FGF23 concentration. Conclusions: An oral glucose load in vitamin D deficient patients with impaired glucose metabolism decreased FGF23 concentrations, which cannot be attributed to changes in insulin concentration. Thus, bone may react rapidly after glucose loading by alternating FGF23 secretion. A diet-induced increase in FGF23 concentrations did not affect fasting glucose or insulin levels.