The management of type 1 diabetes in adults. A consensus report by the American diabetes association (ADA) and the European association for the study of diabetes (EASD)

Richard I. G. Holt*, J. Hans Devries, Amy Hess-Fischl, Irl B. Hirsch, M. Sue Kirkman, Tomasz Klupa, Barbara Ludwig, Kirsten Nørgaard, Jeremy Pettus, Eric Renard, Jay S. Skyler, Frank J. Snoek, Ruth S. Weinstock, Anne L. Peters

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) convened a writing group to develop a consensus statement on the management of type 1 diabetes in adults. The writing group has considered the rapid development of new treatments and technologies and addressed the following topics: Diagnosis, aims of management, schedule of care, diabetes self-management education and support, glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, hypoglycemia, behavioral considerations, psychosocial care, diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreas and islet transplantation, adjunctive therapies, special populations, inpatient management, and future perspectives. Although we discuss the schedule for follow-up examinations and testing, we have not included the evaluation and treatment of the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes as these are well-reviewed and discussed elsewhere. The writing group was aware of both national and international guidance on type 1 diabetes and did not seek to replicate this but rather aimed to highlight the major areas that health care professionals should consider when managing adults with type 1 diabetes. Though evidence-based where possible, the recommendations in the report represent the consensus opinion of the authors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2589-2625
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

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