The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

T. van Strien, L. Winkens, M. B. Toft, J.S. Pedersen, I. Brouwer, M. Visser, L. Lahteenmaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and.Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-508
Number of pages9
JournalAppetite
Volume105
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Cite this

van Strien, T. ; Winkens, L. ; Toft, M. B. ; Pedersen, J.S. ; Brouwer, I. ; Visser, M. ; Lahteenmaki, L. / The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain. In: Appetite. 2016 ; Vol. 105. pp. 500-508.
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title = "The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain",
abstract = "In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and.Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95{\%} CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95{\%} CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
author = "{van Strien}, T. and L. Winkens and Toft, {M. B.} and J.S. Pedersen and I. Brouwer and M. Visser and L. Lahteenmaki",
note = "ISI Document Delivery No.: DU6SQ Times Cited: 1 Cited Reference Count: 65 van Strien, Tatjana Winkens, Laura Toft, Madeleine Broman Pedersen, Susanne Brouwer, Ingeborg Visser, Marjolein Lahteenmaki, Liisa European Union FP7 MooDFOOD Project 'Multi-country cOllaborative project on the rOle of Diet, FOod-related behavior, and Obesity in the prevention of Depression' [613598] Funding for this paper was provided by the European Union FP7 MooDFOOD Project 'Multi-country cOllaborative project on the rOle of Diet, FOod-related behavior, and Obesity in the prevention of Depression' (grant agreement no. 613598). 1 14 20 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD LONDON APPETITE",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Appetite",
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The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain. / van Strien, T.; Winkens, L.; Toft, M. B.; Pedersen, J.S.; Brouwer, I.; Visser, M.; Lahteenmaki, L.

In: Appetite, Vol. 105, 2016, p. 500-508.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

AU - van Strien, T.

AU - Winkens, L.

AU - Toft, M. B.

AU - Pedersen, J.S.

AU - Brouwer, I.

AU - Visser, M.

AU - Lahteenmaki, L.

N1 - ISI Document Delivery No.: DU6SQ Times Cited: 1 Cited Reference Count: 65 van Strien, Tatjana Winkens, Laura Toft, Madeleine Broman Pedersen, Susanne Brouwer, Ingeborg Visser, Marjolein Lahteenmaki, Liisa European Union FP7 MooDFOOD Project 'Multi-country cOllaborative project on the rOle of Diet, FOod-related behavior, and Obesity in the prevention of Depression' [613598] Funding for this paper was provided by the European Union FP7 MooDFOOD Project 'Multi-country cOllaborative project on the rOle of Diet, FOod-related behavior, and Obesity in the prevention of Depression' (grant agreement no. 613598). 1 14 20 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD LONDON APPETITE

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and.Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and.Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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DO - 10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.025

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VL - 105

SP - 500

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JO - Appetite

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SN - 0195-6663

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