Late-onset sepsis is frequently seen in preterm infants and is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. White matter damage is proposed as substrate of poor outcome, with contributing factors as regional hypoxia and effects of cytokines on oligodendrocytes. We investigated the relation between cerebral oxygenation during (suspected) late-onset sepsis and neurodevelopmental outcome. Prospective cohort study, including preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birthweight <1500 grams) with (suspected) late-onset sepsis underwent NIRS registration during the first 72 hours of suspected late-onset sepsis. At two years corrected age neurodevelopment was scored using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Thirty-two infants were included. Twenty-seven infants were identified with proven late-onset sepsis and five infants had clinical sepsis without positive blood culture. In this study, late-onset sepsis was predominantly caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) (72%). All NIRS values were within normal limits. No association was found between NIRS and impaired neurodevelopmental outcome (n = 4) at corrected age two years: composite cognitive score 105 (80–115), composite motor score 103 (82–118) (median and range). In this pilot study, late-onset sepsis (predominantly caused by CoNS with a relatively mild clinical course), was not associated with aberrant NIRS values, nor with impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Further research might establish our findings and elucidate effects of other micro-organisms on cerebral perfusion.
Zonnenberg, I. A., van Dijk, J., van den Dungen, F. A. M., Jeroen Vermeulen, R., & van Weissenbruch, M. M. (2019). The prognostic value of NIRS in preterm infants with (suspected) late-onset sepsis in relation to long term outcome: A pilot study. PLoS ONE, 14(7), [e0220044]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220044