Introduction: Many nursing homes (NHs) are affected by COVID-19 and 30-day mortality is high. Knowledge on recovery of NH residents after COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we investigated the trajectory in the first three months after a COVID-19 infection in NH residents.
Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study of Dutch NH residents with COVID-19 between 1 September 2020 and 1 March 2021. Prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms and functioning was determined using interRAI (ADL-Hierarchy Scale (ADL-HS), Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and Revised Index of Social Engagement (RISE)) at four time points. Descriptive and pattern analyses were performed.
Results: Eighty-six residents were included. Symptom prevalences after three months were higher than at baseline. At group level, functioning on all domains deteriorated and was followed by recovery towards baseline, except for ADL functioning. There were four trajectories; 9.3% had no deterioration. Total and partial recovery occurred in respectively 30.2% and 55.8% of the residents. In 4.7% there was no recovery.
Conclusion: In 86% of NH residents surviving three months after COVID-19, occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms and deterioration in functioning was followed by recovery. COVID-19 symptoms fatigue and sleeping behaviour were significantly more prevalent, and ADL functioning was significantly lower, at three months compared to baseline.