The Temperature-Dependent Effectiveness of Platinum-Based Drugs Mitomycin-C and 5-FU during Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

Roxan F.C.P.A. Helderman, Daan R. Löke, Jan Verhoeff, Hans M. Rodermond, Gregor G.W. van Bochove, Menno Boon, Sanne van Kesteren, Juan J. Garcia Vallejo, H. Petra Kok, Pieter J. Tanis, Nicolaas A.P. Franken, Johannes Crezee, Arlene L. Oei

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Abstract

Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a treatment with curative intent for peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Currently, there is no standardized HIPEC protocol: choice of drug, perfusate temperature, and duration of treatment vary per institute. We investigated the temperature-dependent effectiveness of drugs often used in HIPEC. METHODS: The effect of temperature on drug uptake, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and cell growth were assessed using the temperature-dependent IC50 and Thermal Enhancement Ratio (TER) values of the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, mitomycin-C (MMC), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on 2D and 3D CRC cell cultures at clinically relevant hyperthermic conditions (38-43 °C/60 min). RESULTS: Hyperthermia alone decreased cell viability and clonogenicity of all cell lines. Treatment with platinum-based drugs and MMC resulted in G2-arrest. Platinum-based drugs display a temperature-dependent synergy with heat, with increased drug uptake, DNA damage, and apoptosis at elevated temperatures. Apoptotic levels increased after treatment with MMC or 5-FU, without a synergy with heat. CONCLUSION: Our in vitro results demonstrate that a 60-min exposure of platinum-based drugs and MMC are effective in treating 2D and 3D CRC cell cultures, where platinum-based drugs require hyperthermia (>41 °C) to augment effectivity, suggesting that they are, in principle, suitable for HIPEC.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCells
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2020

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