Purpose: To determine the health-related quality of life (QOL), safety and radiologic parameters after thoracoscopic treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures using a distractible cage in patients without spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients treated between 2004 and 2012 in a university level-one trauma center. Patient and treatment characteristics were collected from the hospital information system. All available radiographic material was assessed for fracture characteristics and Cobb angle at consecutive times. Patients completed the SF-36 and EQ-5D QOL questionnaires at follow-up. Results: 105 patients were treated with a distractible cage, which was performed thoracoscopically in 86 cases, including 16 patients with SCI. Of 70 eligible patients, 46 were available for follow-up and completed the questionnaires at median 49 months after surgery. QOL was lower on most domains compared to the general population. Compared to patients who underwent solely posterior fixation for less severe fractures, QOL did not differ significantly. The complication rate was low (10%) with one re-operation. Mean loss of correction was 6.8° and bony fusion on CT scan was present in 98% of patients. Maintenance of kyphosis correction was significantly better for two segments anterior fixation compared to one segment. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic anterior stabilization leads to a high percentage of bony fusion in highly unstable thoracic and thoracolumbar fractures with limited post-operative loss of correction and no hardware failure. QOL of these patients does not return to normal population values but is comparable to that of patients with less severe fractures treated with solely posterior instrumentation. Graphical abstract: These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].