A synthetic 17-mer peptide corresponding to an unique sequence in the amino-terminal region of human creatine kinase B was used to raise a new and highly B-subunit-specific monoclonal antibody, CK-BYK/21E10. We show here that the monoclonal antibody is suitable for immunohistochemistry of unfixed frozen sections as well as formaldehyde- or Bouin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human, rabbit, and mouse tissues. Moreover, in the study of cell- and tissue-specific distribution patterns, parallel Western blot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy is possible using this antibody. Our analyses demonstrate that creatine kinase B expression is restricted to a specific subset of cell types in various tissues. In brain, the B-subunit was found only in neurocytes, but not in glia cells. High expression was also observed in inner segments of photoreceptor cells and the outer plexiform layer of the retina, in the parietal cells of the stomach and in gut enterocytes, gallbladder and epithelial cells of the urogenital system. The possible roles of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine-ATP system in these tissues are discussed.