Towards standardization of echocardiography for the evaluation of left ventricular function in adult rodents: A position paper of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial Function

Serena Zacchigna*, Alessia Paldino, Inês Falcão-Pires, Evangelos P. Daskalopoulos, Matteo Dal Ferro, Simone Vodret, Pierluigi Lesizza, Antonio Cannatà, Daniela Miranda-Silva, André P. Lourenço, Bruno Pinamonti, Gianfranco Sinagra, Florian Weinberger, Thomas Eschenhagen, Lucie Carrier, Izhak Kehat, Carlo G. Tocchetti, Michele Russo, Alessandra Ghigo, James CiminoEmilio Hirsch, Dana Dawson, Michele Ciccarelli, Marco Oliveti, Wolfgang A. Linke, Ilona Cuijpers, Stephane Heymans, Nazha Hamdani, Martine De Boer, Dirk J. Duncker, Diederik Kuster, Jolanda Van Der Velden, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand, Manuel Mayr, Mauro Giacca, Florian Leuschner, Johannes Backs, Thomas Thum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Echocardiography is a reliable and reproducible method to assess non-invasively cardiac function in clinical and experimental research. Significant progress in the development of echocardiographic equipment and transducers has led to the successful translation of this methodology from humans to rodents, allowing for the scoring of disease severity and progression, testing of new drugs, and monitoring cardiac function in genetically modified or pharmacologically treated animals. However, as yet, there is no standardization in the procedure to acquire echocardiographic measurements in small animals. This position paper focuses on the appropriate acquisition and analysis of echocardiographic parameters in adult mice and rats, and provides reference values, representative images, and videos for the accurate and reproducible quantification of left ventricular function in healthy and pathological conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-59
Number of pages17
JournalCardiovascular Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

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