OBJECTIVES: Adverse remodelling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in a pathological increase in LV volume and reduction in LV ejection fraction (EF). We describe the preliminary results of a novel, multicentre, combined transcatheter and minimally invasive technique to reconstruct the remodelled LV by plication and exclusion of the scar, and to reduce the excess volume, resulting in decreased wall stress and increased EF. METHODS: A novel hybrid transcatheter technique that relies on microanchoring technology (Revivent TCTM System, BioVentrix Inc., San Ramon, CA, USA) was used. The LV is reconstructed without the use of extracorporeal circulation by plication of the fibrous scar. This is achieved by implantation of a series of internal and external microanchors brought together over a PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) tether to form a longitudinal line of apposition between the LV free wall and the anterior septum. Internal anchors are deployed by a transcatheter technique on the right side of the ventricular septum through the right internal jugular vein. Paired external anchors are advanced through a left-sided minithoracotomy and deployed on the LV epicardium. A specialized force gauge is used to bring these 'right ventricle (RV)-LV' anchors together under measured compression forces. LV-LV' anchor pairs through the LV apex beyond the distal tip of the RV complete the reconstruction. Patients who were considered eligible for the procedure presented with symptomatic heart failure (New York Heart Association class >II) and ischaemic cardiomyopathy (EF <40%) after anteroseptal MI. All patients had a dilated LV with either an a- or dys-kinetic scar in the anteroseptal wall and apex of >50% transmurality. RESULTS: Between October 2016 and April 2017, 9 patients (8 men, 1 woman; mean age 60 ± 8 years) were operated on in 2 Dutch centres. Procedural success was 100%. On average, 2.6 anchor pairs were used to reconstruct the LV. Comparing echocardiographic data preoperatively and directly postoperatively, LV ejection fraction increased from 28 ± 8% to 40 ± 10% (change +43%, P < 0.001) and LV volumes decreased LV end-systolic volume index 53 ± 8 ml/m2 to 30 ± 11 ml/m2 (change -43%, P < 0.001) and LVEDVI 75 ± 23 ml/m2 to 45 ± 6 ml/m2 (change -40%, P = 0.001). In 1 patient, an RV perforation occurred which necessitated conversion to full sternotomy. One patient underwent a postoperative revision because of RV restriction. After the removal of 1 'RV-LV' anchor pair, the patient recovered completely. Hospital mortality was 0%. The median duration of intensive care unit stay was 2 days [interquartile range (IQR) 1-46 days], and the median length of hospital stay was 9 days (IQR 3-57 days). CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid transcatheter LV reconstruction is a promising novel treatment option for patients with symptomatic heart failure and ischaemic cardiomyopathy after anteroseptal MI. The early results demonstrate that the procedure is safe and results in a significant improvement in EF and reduction in LV volumes in the early postoperative period.
Klein, P., Agostoni, P., van Boven, W-J., de Winter, R. J., & Swaans, M. J. (2019). Transcatheter and minimally invasive surgical left ventricular reconstruction for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy: Preliminary results. Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, 28(3), 441-446. https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivy259