Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of CT hepatic arteriography compared with conventional CT fluoroscopy guidance in percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) ablation to treat colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Materials and Methods: This single-center comparative, retrospective study analyzed data of 108 patients treated with 156 percutaneous ablation procedures (42 CT fluoroscopy guidance [25 RF ablation, 17 MW ablation]; 114 CT hepatic arteriography guidance [18 RF ablation, 96 MW ablation]) for 260 CRLM between January 2009 and May 2019. Local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS) was assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. LTPFS and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: There were no complications related to the transarterial catheter procedure. CT hepatic arteriography proved superior to CT fluoroscopy regarding 2-year LTPFS (18/202 [8.9%] vs 19/58 [32.8%]; P <.001, respectively). CT hepatic arteriography versus CT fluoroscopy (hazard ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.15–0.54; P <.001) and MW ablation versus RF ablation (hazard ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–1.12; P =.094) were positive predictors for longer LTPFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that CT hepatic arteriography versus CT fluoroscopy (hazard ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.19–0.90; P =.025) was associated with a significantly superior LTPFS. OS was similar between the 2 cohorts (P =.3). Conclusions: While adding procedure time and marginal patient burden, transcatheter CT hepatic arteriography–guided ablation was associated with increased local disease control and superior LTPFS compared with conventional CT fluoroscopy. CT hepatic arteriography represents a safe and valid alternative to CT fluoroscopy, as it reduces the number of repeat ablations required without adding risk or detrimental effect on survival.