In this study, the SF-36 Health Survey was translated into two oral Moroccan languages and the existing Turkish version was culturally adapted for use in The Netherlands, and was tested among 79 Moroccan and 90 Turkish cancer patients. There were normal levels of missing item responses but a higher administration time. With minor exceptions, the scale structure of the SF-36 was confirmed and the reliability of the scales met the 0.70 criterion for group comparisons. The questionnaire distinguished clearly between subgroups formed on the basis of performance status and was responsive to change in performance status over time. Some evidence of differential item function (DIF) was found in both ethnic groups. These results support the use of the SF-36 among Turkish and Moroccan cancer patients in The Netherlands. Additional studies are needed to confirm the psychometrics of the questionnaire when used among these ethnic minority groups in other Western European countries.