Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala

Nicaise Ndembi*, Raph L. Hamers, Kim C.E. Sigaloff, Frederick Lyagoba, Brian Magambo, Bridget Nanteza, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Tobias F. Rinke De Wit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: To assess the emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (TDR) in Kampala, Uganda, 10 years after the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to compare with a previous survey among antenatal clinic attendees in 2007 (reporting 0% TDR). Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among newly HIV-1 diagnosed, antiretroviral-naive young adults attending two large voluntary counseling and testing centers within the geographic area of Kampala. Methods: Proxy criteria for recent HIV-1 infection were used as defined by the WHO. Population sequencing of the pol gene was performed on plasma samples with HIV-1 RNA at least 1000 copies/ml. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were identified according to the 2009 WHO list for surveillance of TDR. HIV-1 subtypes were designated using maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Genotypic test results were obtained for 70 of 77 (90.9%) participants. SDRMs were identified in six samples yielding a prevalence of TDR of 8.6% (95% confidence interval 3.2-17.7%). Two had SDRMs to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (D67G and L210W), three had SDRMs to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (G190A, G190S, and K101E), and one had SDRMs to protease inhibitors (N88D). Frequencies of HIV-1 subtypes were A (36/70, 51.4%), C (two of 70; 2.9%), D (23/70, 32.9%), and unique recombinant forms (nine of 70, 12.9%). Conclusion: This repeated survey suggests an increase in TDR in Kampala, compared with a previous survey. This finding justifies increased vigilance with respect to surveillance of TDR in areas in Africa where ART programs are rolled-out.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-910
Number of pages6
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 24 Apr 2011

Cite this

Ndembi, N., Hamers, R. L., Sigaloff, K. C. E., Lyagoba, F., Magambo, B., Nanteza, B., ... Rinke De Wit, T. F. (2011). Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala. AIDS, 25(7), 905-910.