Treatment of UTIs in Infants: A Living Systematic Review


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CONTEXT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in infants <2 months of age. However, there are no clear guidelines on the appropriate duration of antibiotics in this age group.

OBJECTIVE: In this living systematic review, we compared different durations of parenteral antibiotics (≤3 vs >3 days) in neonates and young infants (<2 months) with UTIs. The secondary objective was to compare different durations of total antibiotic courses (≤10 vs >10 days).

DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Google Scholar, and gray literature, up to March 2, 2021.

STUDY SELECTION: Citations were screened in triplicate by using a crowdsourcing methodology, to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 2 crowd members and verified by an expert investigator. Outcomes were pooled via random-effects models.

RESULTS: A total of 10 334 citations were screened, and 12 eligible studies were identified. A total of 59 of 3480 (1.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3% to 2.2%]) infants had a UTI recurrence within 30 days after short parenteral treatment (≤3 days), and 47 of 1971 (2.4% [95% CI: 1.8% to 3.2%]) after longer courses. The pooled adjusted odds ratio for UTI recurrence with a short versus long duration of parenteral antibiotics was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.64 to 1.61; P = .95; n = 5451). A total of 5 studies assessed the risk of recurrence on the basis of the total duration of antibiotics (≤10 vs >10 days) with no significant differences (pooled odds ratio: 1.29 [95% CI: 0.45 to 3.66; P = .63; n = 491).

CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of retrospective studies and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation level low evidence, short and long duration of parenteral antibiotics were associated with a similar risk of UTI recurrence in infants <2 months.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1017-1030
Number of pages14
JournalHospital pediatrics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

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