Tumor grafted - chick chorioallantoic membrane as an alternative model for biological cancer research and conventional/nanomaterial-based theranostics evaluation

Ana Katrina Mapanao, Pei Pei Che, Patrizia Sarogni, Peter Sminia, Elisa Giovannetti*, Valerio Voliani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction: Advancements in cancer management and treatment are associated with strong preclinical research data, in which reliable cancer models are demanded. Indeed, inconsistent preclinical findings and stringent regulations following the 3Rs principle of reduction, refinement, and replacement of conventional animal models currently pose challenges in the development and translation of efficient technologies. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a system for the evaluation of treatment effects on the vasculature, therefore suitable for studies on angiogenesis. Apart from vascular effects, the model is now increasingly employed as a preclinical cancer model following tumor-grafting procedures. Areas covered: The broad application of CAM tumor model is highlighted along with the methods for analyzing the neoplasm and vascular system. The presented and cited investigations focus on cancer biology and treatment, encompassing both conventional and emerging nanomaterial-based modalities. Expert opinion: The CAM tumor model finds increased significance given the influences of angiogenesis and the tumor microenvironment in cancer behavior, then providing a qualified miniature system for oncological research. Ultimately, the establishment and increased employment of such a model may resolve some of the limitations present in the standard preclinical tumor models, thereby redefining the preclinical research workflow.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-968
Number of pages22
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology
Issue number8
Early online date10 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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