Mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are the most important causes of inherited cardiomyopathies, which are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although genetic screening procedures for early disease detection have been improved significantly, treatment to prevent or delay mutation-induced cardiac disease onset is lacking. Recent findings indicate that loss of protein quality control (PQC) is a central factor in the disease pathology leading to derailment of cellular protein homeostasis. Loss of PQC includes impairment of heat shock proteins, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. This may result in accumulation of misfolded and aggregation-prone mutant proteins, loss of sarcomeric and cytoskeletal proteins, and, ultimately, loss of cardiac function. PQC derailment can be a direct effect of the mutation-induced activation, a compensatory mechanism due to mutation-induced cellular dysfunction or a consequence of the simultaneous occurrence of the mutation and a secondary hit. In this review, we discuss recent mechanistic findings on the role of proteostasis derailment in inherited cardiomyopathies, with special focus on sarcomeric gene mutations and possible therapeutic applications.