Background: Small bowel neuroendocrine neoplasms (SB-NEN) are rare cancers, population-based studies are needed to study this rare indolent disease. The aim of this study was to explore trends in epidemiology, treatment and survival outcomes of patients with SB-NEN based on Dutch nationwide data. Patients and methods: Patients with grade 1 or 2 SB-NEN diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and linked to The Nationwide Network and Registry of Histo- and Cytopathology in the Netherlands. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated based using the direct standardization method. Survival analyses were performed with the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: A total of 1132 patients were included for epidemiological analyses. The age-adjusted incidence rate of SB-NEN increased from 0.52 to 0.81 per 100.000 person-years between 2005 and 2015. Incidence was higher for males than females (0.93 vs. 0.69 in 2015). Most patients had grade 1 tumours (83%). Surgery was performed in 86% of patients, with resection of the primary tumour in 99%. During the study period, administration of somatostatin analogues (SSAs) increased from 5 to 22% for stage III and from 27 to 63% for stage IV disease. Mean follow-up was 61 (standard deviation 38) months. Survival data were complete for 975/1132 patients and five-year overall survival was 75% for stage I-II, 75% for stage III and 57% for stage IV. Conclusions: This study shows an increase in the incidence of SB-NEN in the Netherlands. A predominant role of surgery was found in all disease stages. Use of SSAs has increased over time.